Professional Articles

  • PikeOS for MPU

    Develop heterogeneous SoC homogeneously

    Hybrid system-on-chips increasingly integrate heterogeneous processors. However, developers see them as one component that they want to develop as integrated as possible. A homogeneous RTOS and hypervisor ecosystem for both MPU- and MMU-supported processors provides the critical convenience gain.

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  • Chip Virtualization

    Development on Bare Metal vs. RTOS

    When developing embedded systems that are to be real-time capable, one of the first and most important questions is whether the applications should run under a real-time operating system (RTOS) or whether a bare-metal solution should be developed. Bare-metal programming is generally understood to mean that an application is written directly on the hardware without using an external programming interface, i.e. an operating system. Applications access here directly hardware registers of…

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  • Railway & Transportation

    Secure Communications in Rolling Stock

    While the EN standards 50128, 50129, 50126 and most recently EN 50657 have a strong focus on safety certification of COTS-based systems in the railway industry, they only partly deal with security issues. However, security is becoming more and more important, as closed systems are giving way to networked environments with wired and wireless connectivity. Safety-related systems in trains and signalling need to be protected from cyber threats in order to guarantee both integrity and availability.…

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  • Space Mission

    Hypervisor in Space

    Development of certifiable systems and software for European Space Applications requires strict adherence to the ECSS standards. ECSS - the European Cooperation for Space Standardization - is a cooperation of the European Space Agency (ESA), national space agencies and the European Industry Association Eurospace with the aim of developing and maintaining coherent, commercially oriented and user-friendly standards for space applications. The main intention is to improve the performance and…

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  • Medical & Healthcare

    Embedded Linux in Medical Technology

    Linux makes valuable contributions as a component of medical devices. Due to a large user base, security gaps are quickly detected and thus also closed. Of course, it also plays a role at this point that a professional team takes care of the maintenance of a Linux integration in medical devices and that the system is also regularly maintained. An optimal combination of a core development team and the use of open source can bring great advances in medical technology. The biggest advantage of…

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  • Space Mission

    Improved real-time Positioning Data through PikeOS-based Augmentation Systems

    When people think of satellite-based GPS, they envision a high-tech satellite navigation system that can pinpoint locations worldwide to within a few meters. But global navigation systems (GNSS) such as the American GPS or the European Galileo struggle with many environmental interferences. So-called satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) improve the performance of these navigation systems by correcting their data. From 2022, the Korean peninsula will also benefit from the PikeOS-based SBAS…

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  • Automotive

    Browsing and Over-the-Air Updates peacefully united

    The electronic systems such as the anti-lock braking system inside a modern car are able to take control of critical systems such as the steering and braking gears. This significantly increases functional safety during vehicle operation, but at the same time also creates the risk of unauthorized access. Consequently, the functional safety of a vehicle must be supported by IT security measures. Real-time applications require deterministic response times, which can only be achieved with the help…

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  • Industrial Automation

    Secure Factory Automation

    The continuing technological advancement that is enabling decreasing costs and greater compactness of devices make it possible to connect and control more physical elements in the industrial environment today. This is enabling industrial engineers to monitor processes with greater accuracy and drive OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness). At the same time separate operational technology (OT) systems are merging with enterprise IT infrastructure. However, this greater connectivity also brings more…

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  • Automotive

    Safety Certification of COTS-based Systems in Automotive Applications

    The ISO 26262 safety standard is a specialization of the general IEC 61508 functional safety standard and defines generic (software) applications and generic (hardware) products that can receive independent certification for automotive applications. When building a complex safety system, such commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products can be reused, including their existing certification artifacts. With this approach, safety-related electronics can be assembled from pre-certified software and…

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  • Railway & Transportation

    IT Security Architecture for the next Generation of Control and Safety Technology

    With the increasing use of networked digital technologies in safety-critical areas of railway operations, the requirements for cyber security, which must be considered together with functional safety, are growing. In the HASELNUSS project, a safety platform is being developed that allows the joint operation of safety and security applications on one system.

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  • ELinOS Embedded Linux

    Easier Development of embedded Linux Applications with ELinOS

    For many years, embedded Linux systems have been used predominantly in networked environments. These systems worked well for a long time - true to the motto "Never touch a running system". However, this inevitably leads to security problems and is accompanied by the fact that, according to the latest Cyber Security Report by Allensbach and Deloitte, managers see a growing threat situation in their IT infrastructures. Embedded systems can be found in many electronic devices - from specialized…

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  • Multi-Core

    Real-Time Performance for Multi-Core Designs

    In Multi-Core-Systemen ist kaum vorhersagbar, wie sich die Kerne gegenseitig beeinflussen, wenn auf gemeinsame Ressourcen zugegriffen wird. Bisher wurde sicherheitshalber das gesamte System gesperrt, solange kritische Codesegmente ausgeführt werden. Aber das muss nicht sein, denn das geht auf Kosten des Echtzeitverhaltens.

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  • Railway & Transportation

    certMILS eases Security Certification of Railway Systems

    In the latest issue of Global Railway Review, Dr. Sergey Tverdyshev (Director of Research & Technology at SYSGO) talks about security certifications of railway systems considering the MILS concept. He is the technical leader of the certMILS project – certMILS aims to protect critical infrastructure against cyber-attacks by compositional security certification to deliver a certified Multiple Independent Levels of Security (MILS) platform. But how can this be applied to railway systems?

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  • Security Certification

    Separation Kernel as a Basis for certifiable Applications and Systems

    Functional security and cybersecurity are among the most important issues in the development of modern vehicles, and the certification of individual systems will become increasingly important in the future. Developers must therefore increasingly work according to the "Safety & Security by Design" principle. Real-time operating systems based on a separation kernel enable new approaches.

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  • Security Certification

    Cyber Security as a Design Objective

    Increasing digitalisation presents the armed forces with a whole host of new challenges. Digitalised vehicles and weapon systems are potentially vulnerable to cyber attacks ‒ and not just when they are connected to the Internet. As demonstrated by the Stuxnet computer worm in the attacks on the Iranian nuclear programme, even systems and networks that are supposedly isolated are at risk. Social engineering allows malware to infiltrate such systems even without a direct network connection.

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