Professional Articles

  • Bare Metal vs. RTOS

    When developing embedded systems that are to be real-time capable, one of the first and most important questions is whether the applications should run under a real-time operating system (RTOS) or whether a bare-metal solution should be developed. Bare-metal programming is generally understood to mean that an application is written directly on the hardware without using an external programming interface, i.e. an operating system. Applications access here directly hardware registers of…

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  • Railway & Transportation

    Secure Communications in Rolling Stock

    While the EN standards 50128, 50129, 50126 and most recently EN 50657 have a strong focus on safety certification of COTS-based systems in the railway industry, they only partly deal with security issues. However, security is becoming more and more important, as closed systems are giving way to networked environments with wired and wireless connectivity. Safety-related systems in trains and signalling need to be protected from cyber threats in order to guarantee both integrity and availability.…

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  • Railway & Transportation

    IT Security Architecture for the next Generation of Control and Safety Technology

    With the increasing use of networked digital technologies in safety-critical areas of railway operations, the requirements for cyber security, which must be considered together with functional safety, are growing. In the HASELNUSS project, a safety platform is being developed that allows the joint operation of safety and security applications on one system.

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  • Railway & Transportation

    IT-Sicherheits-Architektur für die nächste Generation der Leit- und Sicherheitstechnik

    Mit dem zunehmenden Einsatz vernetzter digitaler Technologien in sicherheitskritischen Bereichen des Bahnbetriebs steigen die Anforderungen an die Cybersicherheit (Security), die gemeinsam mit der funktionalen Sicherheit (Safety) betrachtet werden muss. Im Projekt HASELNUSS wird eine Sicherheitsplattform entwickelt, die den gemeinsamen Betrieb von Safety- und Security-Anwendungen auf einem System erlaubt.

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  • Railway & Transportation

    certMILS eases Security Certification of Railway Systems

    In the latest issue of Global Railway Review, Dr. Sergey Tverdyshev (Director of Research & Technology at SYSGO) talks about security certifications of railway systems considering the MILS concept. He is the technical leader of the certMILS project – certMILS aims to protect critical infrastructure against cyber-attacks by compositional security certification to deliver a certified Multiple Independent Levels of Security (MILS) platform. But how can this be applied to railway systems?

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  • Railway & Transportation

    A Modular Train Control System through the Use of certified COTS HW/SW and qualified Tools

    The European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) forms the basis for standardization in relation to train control systems (ETCS), command control and safety technology, and Integrated Electronic Control Centres (IECC) in Europe [ETC16]. The previous HW/SW systems in these fields followed a monolithic integration approach applied by the individual manufacturers. This harbours problems relating to the compatibility of the systems of the various manufacturers, creates dependencies and reduces…

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